Lesson 7: Speeches for Special Occasion


6414EC5EF2DE64D70BAF9D8556981_h300_w400_m2_bblack_q100_p100_caXLUYkEXOn ceremonial occasions, your audience has distinct expectations for what they will hear. This chapter will help you learn the expectations and considerations of six different special occasion speeches.

  1. Speeches of welcome
  1. Speech of Welcome: a brief ceremonial address that greets and expresses pleasure for the presence of a person or an organization. You will frequently give a welcoming speech as the representative of a group or be asked to serve as master or mistress of ceremonies: an individual designated to set the mood of the program, introduce participants, and keep the program moving


  1. Expectations – You must be familiar with the group that you are representing and the occasion for the welcoming.
  1. Organization
    1. The beginning, you may want to express appreciation of your group for the presence of the person or organization.
    2. Provide a brief description of the group and setting to which he or she is being welcomed.
    3. The conclusion should briefly express your hope for the outcome of the visit, event, or relationship.


  1. Speeches of introduction
  1. Speech of introduction: a brief ceremonial speech that establishes a supportive climate for the main speaker, highlights the speaker’s credibility by familiarizing the audience with pertinent biographical information, and generates enthusiasm for listening to the speaker and topic.
  1. Organization
    1. The beginning, quickly establish the nature of the occasion
    2. The body should focus on three or four things about the person being introduced that are critical for the audience to know
    3. The conclusion should mention the speaker by name and briefly identify the speaker’s topic or the title of the speech.


  1. Speeches of nomination
  1. Speech of nomination: a ceremonial presentation that proposes a nominee for an elected office, honor, position or award.


  1. Expectations – You must highlight the qualities that make this person the most credible candidate
  1. Organization
    1. First clarify the importance of the position, honor or award.
    2. List the candidate’s personal and professional qualifications that meet those criteria
    3. Formally place the candidate’s name in nomination, creating a dramatic climax to clinch your speech
  1. Speeches of recognition
  1. Speech of recognition: a ceremonial presentation that acknowledges someone and usually presents an award, a prize or a gift to the individual or a representative of the group.


  1. Expectations – You need to discuss why the recipient is being recognized, including what the recognition criteria were and how the recipient met them. Refrain from over-praising. In the U.S., it is traditional to shake hands with recipients as awards are received.
  1. Organization
    1. Begin by describing what the recognition is for
    2. Then state the criteria for winning or achieving the recognition
    3. Describe how the person being recognized won or achieved the award.


  1. Speeches of acceptance
  1. Speech of acceptance: a ceremonial speech given to acknowledge receipt of an honor or award.


  1. Expectations – The goal is to convey your appreciation for the honor. This is a brief speech.
  1. Organization
    1. Briefly thank the person or group bestowing the honor
    2. Acknowledge the competition
    3. Express feelings about receiving the award
    4. Thank those who contributed to achieving the honor or award
  1. Speeches of tribute
  1. Speech of tribute: a ceremonial speech that praises or celebrates a person, a group or an event.
    1. A toast is a ceremonial speech offered at the start of a reception or meal that pays tribute to the occasion or to a person. It should be sincere and express a sentiment that is likely to be widely shared by those in attendance.
    2. A roast is an event where family and friends share short speeches that offer good-natured insults or anecdotes, in honor of one person.
    3. A eulogy is a ceremonial speech of tribute during a funeral or memorial service that praises someone’s life and accomplishments.

VII. Other ceremonial speeches

  1. Commencement address: a speech of tribute praising graduating students and inspiring them to reach for their goals.


  1. Commemorative addresses: a ceremonial speech of tribute that celebrates national holidays or anniversaries of important events.


  1. Keynote address: a ceremonial speech that both sets the tone and generates enthusiasm for the topic of a conference or convention.


  1. Dedication: a speech of tribute that honors a worthy person or group by naming a structure, monument, or park after them


  1. Farewell: a ceremonial speech of tribute honoring someone who is leaving an organization


  1. Speech to entertain: a humorous speech that makes a serious point



Lesson 6: Practise Makes Perfect (Delivery)


public speaking business blog gesturesDelivery is important because how well the ideas are spoken can have a major impact on the audience’s interest, understanding, and memory.

  1. Characteristics of an effective delivery style. Delivery is how a message is communicated orally and visually through your use of voice and body. Nonverbal communication includes all speech elements other than the words themselves
  1. Use a conversational tone so your audience feels you are talking with them, not at them. The hallmark of conversational tone is spontaneity, the ability to sound natural as you speak.
  1. Be animated, lively, energetic, enthusiastic, and dynamic. The secret is to focus on conveying the passion you feel about your topic through your voice and body.
  1. Effective use of voice, the sound you produce using your vocal organs. Focus on not only what you say but also on how you sound as you say it
  1. Characteristics of voice – by effectively varying your pitch, volume, rate and quality, you can achieve an animated and conversational style that is both intelligible and expressive.
    1. Pitch is the highness or lowness of the sounds produced in your larynx by the size and vibration of your vocal cords.
    2. Volume is how loudly or softly you speak.
    3. Rate is the speed at which you talk. Most people speak between 130 and 180 words per minute.
    4. Quality is the tone or timbre of your voice and what distinguishes it from the voices of others.
  1. Speak intelligibly, meaning to be understandable.
  1. Pitch that doesn’t fluctuate often hinders intelligibility
  2. Appropriate volume is the key to intelligibility.
  3. The rate at which you speak can determine how intelligible your message is.
  4. Articulation, using the tongue, palate, teeth, jaws and lips to shape vocalized sounds that combine to produce a word, can how intelligible your message is.
  5. Accent, the inflection, tone and speech habits typical of native speakers of a language, may impact intelligibility. If your accent is very different than that of most of your audience, practice pronouncing key words so that you are easily understood, speak slowly to allow your audience members more time to process your message, and consider using visual aids to reinforce key terms, concepts, and important points.
  1. Use vocal expressiveness by changing your pitch, volume and rate, stressing certain words, and using pauses strategically.
  1. Actual or near monotone, a voice in which the pitch, volume, and rate remain constant, with no word, idea, or sentence differing significantly from any other, diminishes the chances of audience understanding.
  2. Use stress, emphasis placed on certain words by speaking them more loudly than the rest of the sentence, to shape your meaning.
  3. Pauses, moments of silence strategically place to enhance meaning, can also mark important ideas.
  1. Effective Use of the Body contributes to how conversational and animated your audience perceives you to be (p. 216).
  1. Eye contactis directly looking at the people whom you are speaking.
    1. You should look at your audience at least 90 percent of the time.
    2. Maintaining eye contact is important because:
      1. Maintaining eye contact helps audiences concentrate on the speech.
      2. Maintaining eye contact bolster ethos. Beware of cultural differences to determine what kind of eye contact is most appropriate.
      3. Maintaining eye contact helps you gauge audience reaction to your ideas.
      4. When speaking with large audiences of 100 or more people, you must create a sense of looking listeners in the eye even though you actually cannot. This process is called audience contact.
  1. Facial expressions, the eye and mouth movements that convey your personableness and good character and can help animate your speech, should be natural and appear to spontaneously reflect what you are saying and how you feel about it.
  1. Gestures, the movements of your hands, arms, and fingers, can help intelligibility and expressiveness. Effective gestures must appear spontaneous and natural even though they are carefully planned and practiced.
  1. Movement refers to changing the position or location of your entire body. During your speech, it is important to engage only in motivated movement, movement with a specific purpose such as emphasizing an important idea, referencing a presentational aid, or clarifying macrostructure.
  1. Posture refers to the position or bearing with which you hold your body.
  1. Poise is a graceful and controlled use of the body that gives the impression that you are self-assured, calm and dignified.
  1. Appearance, the way you look to others, matters; studies show that a neatly groomed and professional appearance sends important messages about a speaker’s commitment to the topic and occasion, as well as the speaker’s credibility.
    1. Consider the rhetorical situation and dress accordingly.
    2. Consider your topic and purpose.
    3. Avoid extremes; you want your audience to focus on your message, so your appearance should be neutral, not distracting.


  1. Delivery methods


  1. Impromptu speech: a speech that is delivered with only seconds or minutes of advance notice for preparation and is usually presented without referring to notes of any kind.


  1. Scripted speech: a speech that is prepared by creating a complete written manuscript and delivered by reading a written copy.


  1. Extemporaneous speech: a speech that is researched and planned ahead of time but whose exact wording is not scripted and will vary from presentation to presentation.


V. Rehearsal – rehearsing is the iterative process of practicing your speech aloud.

  1. Preparing speaking notes, a key word outline of your speech, including hard-to-remember information such as quotations and statistics, as well as delivery cues designed to help trigger memory.
  1. Handing presentational aids.
    1. Carefully plan when to use the presentational aids.
    2. Consider audience needs carefully.
    3. Share a presentational aid only when talking about it.
    4. Display presentational aids so that everyone in the audience can see and hear them.
    5. Talk to your audience, not to the presentational aid.
    6. Resist the temptation to pass objects through the audience.
  1. Preparing speaking notes.
    1. Speech notes: a word or phrase outline of your speech, plus hard-to-remember information such as quotations and statistics, designed to trigger memory.
    2. The best notes contain the fewest words possible written in lettering large enough to be seen instantly at a distance.
    3. To develop notes begin by reducing your speech outline to an abbreviated outline of key phrases and words.
    4. Speech notes are important because the act of compiling them cements the ideas in your head and you are able to think about the key ideas and phrasings.
    5. Notes do not include all of the developmental material.
    6. During practice sessions, use the notes as you would in the speech.
  1. Rehearsing and refining delivery.
    1. First rehearsal should include the following steps.
      1. Audiotape your practice session.
      2. Read through your complete sentence outline once or twice to refresh memory.
      3. Make the practice as similar to the speech situation as possible, including using the visual aids you’ve prepared.
      4. Write down the time that you begin.
      5. Regardless of what happens, keep going until you have presented your entire speech.
      6. Write down the time you finish
      7. Analysis of first practice to make any necessary changes before your second rehearsal.
      8. Second practice. Repeat steps of first practice.
      9. Additional rehearsals to further refine your delivery. For beginners, at least four rehearsal sessions are recommended.

VI. Adapting to your audience as you give your speech: The rhetorical situation:

  1. Be aware of and respond to audience feedback
  2. Be prepared to use alternative developmental material
  3. Correct yourself when you misspeak
  4. Adapt to unexpected events
  5. Adapt to unexpected audience reactions
  6. Handle questions respectfully

Lesson 5: Battle Equipment


belajar-public-speakingPresentation aid: Any visual, audio, or audiovisual material used by a speaker in a speech. They enable you to adapt to an audience’s level of knowledge by clarifying and dramatizing your verbal message; they help audiences retain the information they hear; they allow you to address diverse learning styles; they increase the persuasive appeal of your speech and they may help you feel more competent. This chapter describes the types of visual aids, the criteria for choosing them, and how to design and use visual aids in your speech.

  1. Types of presentational aids
  1. Visual aids enhance the verbal message by allow audiences to see what it is you are describing or explaining in your speech.
    1. Actual Objects: inanimate or animate samples of the idea you are communicating.
      1. Inanimate objects make good visual aids if they are:
  2. Large enough for all audience members to see.
  3. Small enough to carry to the site of the speech

iii. Simple enough to understand visually

iv. Safe

  1. Some animate objects also make effective visual aids
    1. You can be a visual aid by showing motions like how to swing a golf club or use your attire to illustrate the native dress of a particular country

ii. Another person can be a visual aid by helping you demonstrate a process

iii. Animals can also be effective visual aids

  1. When an object’s size is inappropriate, too complex, potentially unsafe or uncontrollable, a model, a three-dimensional scaled-down or scaled-up version of an actual object, can be an effective aid.
  2. If an exact reproduction of material is needed, photographs can be excellent visual aids. Be sure the image is large enough for the audience to see and that the object of interest in the photo is clearly identified and, ideally, in the foreground.
  3. Simple drawings and diagrams (a type of drawing that shows how the whole relates to its parts) can be effective because you can choose how much detail to include.
  4. Maps can be effective visual aids because they allow you to orient audiences to landmarks, states, cities, land routes, weather systems, and so on.
  5. A chartis a graphic representation that distills a lot of information into an easily interpreted visual format
    1. A flowchart uses symbols and connecting lines to diagram a sequence of steps through a complicated process

ii. An organizational chart shows the structure of an organization in terms of rank and chain of command

iii. A pie chart is a diagram that shows the relationships among parts of a single unit

iv. Figurative comparisons express one thing in terms normally denoting another

  1. A graph is a diagram that presents numerical comparisons.
    1. A bar graph is a diagram that uses vertical or horizontal bars to show relationships between two or more variables.

ii. A line graph is a diagram that indicates change in one or more variables over time.

  1. Audio aids enhance a verbal message through sound. Audio material should make up no more than about 5 percent of your speaking time.
  1. Audiovisual aids enhance the verbal message through sight and sound. Keep them to no more than 5 percent of your speaking time, so choose clips that are to the point and really enhance your message.
  1. Other sensory aids. Depending on your topic, you may want to choose sensory aids that appeal to smell, touch, or taste.


  1. Criteria for choosing presentational aids. It is important to decide what content you want to highlight and how. These questions can help you make your decision.
  1. What are the most important ideas you want your audience to understand and remember?
  1. Are there ideas that are complex or difficult to explain verbally?
  1. Is there important information in your speech that the audience may find boring?
  1. How many presentational aids should I consider?
  1. How large is the audience?
  1. Are my presentational aids easy to use and transport?
  1. Is necessary equipment readily available?
  1. Is there sufficient time to show the aid without having it overtake the speech itself?
  1. Is the time involved in making or getting the presentational aid and equipment cost-effective?
  1. Preparing effective presentational aids. The goal is to prepare professional-looking presentational aids that will enhance your ethos (perceived competence, credibility, and character) in addition to clarifying your message and making it more memorable. There are several guidelines to follow
  1. Limit the reading required of the audience
  1. Customize presentational aids from other sources
  1. Use a photo, print or type size that can be seen easily and a volume and sound quality that can be heard easily by your entire audience
  1. Use a consistent print style that is easy to read
  1. Make sure information is laid out in a way that is aesthetically pleasing
  1. Add pictures or other visual symbols to add interest
  1. Use color strategically.
    1. Use the same background color for all your presentational aids and theme for the slides on your computerized slideshow
    2. Use the same color to show similarities and opposite colors (on a color wheel) to show differences between ideas
    3. Use bright colors to highlight important information. Avoid using read and green together because audience members who are color-blind may not be able to distinguish between them
    4. Use dark colors for lettering on a white background a alight color for letting on dark background
    5. Use no more than two or three colors on any presentational aid that is not a photograph or video clip
    6. Pretend you are your audience. Sit as far away as they will be sitting, and evaluate the colors you have chosen for their readability and appeal.
  1. Use presentation software to prepare professional looking presentational aids
  1. Methods for displaying visual aids. Speakers can choose form the following methods for displaying presentational aids.
  1. Posters are one of the easiest methods for displaying simple drawing, charts, maps, photos and graphs, but because they tend to be fairly small, use them only with smaller audiences.
  1. Whiteboards or chalkboards
    1. They are not suitable for depicting complex material.
    2. Whiteboards or chalkboards should be written on prior to speaking or during a break in speaking.
    3. “Chalk talks” are easiest to prepare, but they are the most likely to result in damage to speaker credibility because they often signal a lack of preparation.
  1. C.     Flipcharts: a large pad of paper mounted on an easel.
    1. Flipcharts are prepared before the speech using colored markers to record the information
    2. Leave several blank pages between each visual on the pad.
    3. You can flip to the empty page while you are talking about material not covered by the charts.
    4. The information that is hand written or drawn must be neat and appropriately sized.


  1. Handouts. Use when it may be useful for everyone in the audience to have a personal copy of the visual aid. You should carefully consider why a handout is superior to other methods. Distribute them at the end of the speech.
  1. Document Cameras allow you to project images without transferring them to an acetate film.
  1. CD/VCR/DVD Players and LCD Projectors: A projection unit that connects to a VCR player, a DVD player, or a computer and projects images from them onto a large screen.
  1. Computerized Slide Shows. Always have a backup plan in case there are equipment problems. To direct attention from your slideshow to you, insert blank screens between your slides.
  1. Guidelines for using presentational aids during the speech.
  1. Plan carefully when to use presentational aids.
  1. Position presentational aids and equipment before beginning your speech.
  1. Show or play presentational aids only when talking about them.
  1. Talk about the visual aid while showing it. Use the “turn-touch-talk” technique
    1. When you display the visual, walk to the screen, slightly turn to the visual and touch it (point to it with your arm or a pointer), then with your back to the screen and your body still at a slight forty-fie degree angle to the group, talk to your audience about the visual.
    2. When you finish making your comments, return to the lectern or your speaking position and turn off the projector or otherwise conceal the visual
  1. Talk to your audience, not to the presentational aid.
  1. Display visual aids so that everyone in the audience can see them.
  1. Avoid passing objects around the audience.

Lesson 4: Knowing Your Audience



In this section, it focuses on the methods for adapting precisely to the audience during a speech, by demonstrating the relevance of your topic, acknowledging initial audience disposition toward your topic, establishing common ground, gaining credibility, ensuring information comprehension and retention, and managing language and cultural differences. To enhance the information presented, Speech Planning Action Step 2 provides a hands-on activity for audience adaptation.


Introduction:  Acting as the “foundation” of the speech, audience adaptation—the process of tailoring your speech’s information to the needs, interests, and expectations of your listeners—plays a critical role in the speech planning process. After dealing with issues of relevance, comprehension, credibility, audience attitudes, and cultural and linguistic differences, a speaker is able to generate a plan of adaptation, which will serve as the blueprint for speech construction.

  1. Relevance—adapting the information in the speech so that audience members view it as important to them
  1. First, establish the timeliness of a topic by demonstrating that it is useful to the audience at present, or will be in the near future.
  1. Second, demonstrate the proximityof the topic by explaining its relevance to audience member’s personal life space.
    1. Audience members are more likely to listen to information when it is related to family, neighborhood, city, state, or country.
    2. The more “distant” the information, the less interesting it will be.
  1. Third, personalize the topic by demonstrating its personal impact—its potential for serious physical, economic, or psychological impact on audience members.
  1. II.    Initial Audience Disposition – the knowledge of an opinions about your topic that your listeners have before they hear you speak
  1. Adapting to the initial audience disposition means creating a speech that takes into account how much audience members already know about your topic and what their attitudes are toward it.
  1. During speech preparation, choose specific supporting material with these initial attitudes in mind.
  1. Common ground—the background knowledge, attitudes, experiences, and philosophies that are shared by audience members and the speaker.
  1. Use personal pronouns: “we”, “us”, “our”.
    1. Personal pronouns is the simplest way to establish common ground.
    2. By using “us” instead of “people”, the speaker includes the audience members and thus gives them a stake in listening to what follows.
  1. Ask rhetorical questionsthat stimulate a mental response rather than an actual spoke response on the part of the audience
    1. Rhetorical questions establish common ground because they imply a shared response among audience members.
    2. They are often used in speech introductions but can also be effective as transitions and in other parts of the speech
  1. Draw from common experiences.
    1. Select and present personal experiences, examples, and illustrations that embody the connection shared between speaker and audience.
    2. Determine how the speaker and audience are similar with regards to the topic or in other areas that you can then compare to your topic
  1. Speaker credibility: the confidence that an audience places in the truthfulness of what a speaker says.
  1. Demonstrate knowledge and expertise. The audience’s assessment of your knowledge and expertise depends on how well you convince them that you are qualified to speak on the topic.
    1. You can establish your expertise directly by disclosing your experience with your topic, including formal education, special study, demonstrated skill, and your “track record.”
    2. Audience members can also assess your expertise through indirect means, such as how well prepared you seem and how much you demonstrate firsthand involvement by using personal examples and illustrations
  1. Establish trustworthiness, the extent to which the audience can believe that what you say is accurate, true, and in their best interest.
    1. Consider how to demonstrate that you are honest, industrious, dependable, and a morally strong person.
    2. How trustworthy you appear will also depend on how the audience views your motives.
  1. Display personableness, the extent to which you project an agreeable or pleasing personality
    1. The more the listeners like you, the more likely they are to believe what you tell them
    2. Dress appropriately for the audience and occasion, smile at individual audience members before beginning your remarks, look at individuals as you speak, acknowledge them with a quick nod, and use appropriate humor to increase personableness
  1. Information comprehension and retention — adapting information so that it is easier for audience members to follow and retain.
  1. Appeal to diverse learning styles, a person’s preferred way of receiving information, so that audience members with different learning styles can comprehend the information. Consider presenting new information in ways that appeal to watching and feeling and doing and thinking.
  1. Orient the audience with transitions, a sentence or two that summarizes one main point and introduces another, to avoid confusing listeners.
  1. Choose specific and familiar language to make sure your listeners understand the meaning you intend.
    1. Specific words clear up the confusion caused by general words by narrowing the focus in some way
    2. Avoid jargon and slang terms unless
      1. You define them clearly the first time you use them and
      2. They are central to your speech goal


  1. Use vivid language and examples because they help audience members understand and remember abstract, complex, and novel material.
  1. Personalize information by presenting information in a frame of reference that is familiar to the audience.
    1. Personalized information is easier for the audience to understand and remember.
    2. The audience is able to recognize similarities between its personal experiences and attitudes and the topic.
  1. Compare unknown ideas with familiar ones is an easy way to adapt your material to your audience. You will want to identify places where you can use adaptive comparisons.
  1. Language and cultural differences: taking into consideration variations in speech practice and perceived effectiveness when addressing an audience composed of people from ethnic and language groups other than your own.
  1. Work to be understood when speaking in your second language
    1. When the first language spoken by the audience is different from that of the speaker, audience members may not be able to understand what the speaker is saying due to accents, mispronounced words, inappropriate words or misused idioms.
      1. To help the audience, speakers can speak more slowly and articulate their words as much as possible to give audience members time to “adjust their ear” to more easily process what the speaker is saying.
      2. Practice in front of friends and associates who are native speakers is one of the best ways to improve second-language speaking.
      3. The more you practice speaking the language, the more comfortable you will become with it and with your ability to relate to audience members.
  1. Choose culturally appropriate supporting material.
    1. A good speaker will learn as much as possible about the culture of audience members, in order to develop the material in a way that is meaningful to them. This may mean conducting additional research.
    2. A speaker may need to elaborate on ideas that would be self-explanatory in your own culture.

VII. Forming a specific plan of audience adaptation by identifying the challenges presented by the audience and planning how to meet them. The adaptation plan should answer the following six questions

  1. How relevant will the audience find this material to be?
  1. What is my audience’s initial disposition toward my speech topic likely to be?
  1. What common ground do audience members share with each other and with me?
  1. What can I do to enhance my credibility?
  1. How can I make it easier for my audience members to comprehend and remember the information I will share?
  1. What language or cultural differences do audience members have with each other and with me?

Lesson 3: Baby steps in speech preparation



This part explains each of the five steps effective speech preparation. These five steps are identifying topics, analyzing your audience, understanding the speech setting, choosing a topic, and developing a specific speech goal. Although we have to discuss each task separately, in practice they overlap and can be completed in a different order.

  1. Determine a speech goal in light of your public speaking situation, the reasons your speech needs to be given.
  1. Audience analysis: the study of the intended audience for your speech
  1. Audience adaptation: the process of tailoring your speech’s information to the needs, interests, and expectations of your listeners.
  1. Identifying potential topics
  1. Speech topics should come from subject areas in which we already have some knowledge and interest.
    1. Subject: a broad area of expertise, such as movies, cognitive psychology, computer technology, or the Middle East.
    2. Topic: a narrow, specific aspect of a subject.


  1. Listing subjects
    1. You can identify potential subjects for your speeches by listing those areas that
    2. are important to you and
    3. you know something about.
      1. These areas could include your area of study, hobbies and leisure activities and special interests.


  1. Brainstorming for topic ideas
    1. Brainstorming: an uncritical, nonevaluative process of generating associated ideas.
    2. When you brainstorm, you list as many ideas as you can without evaluating them.
    3. It is easier to select a topic from a list, than to come up with one out of the blue.

D. Concept mapping for topic ideas

1. concept mapping: A visual means of exploring connections between a subject and related ideas.

2. generated by asking yourself questions about your subject, focusing on who, what, where, when, and how.

  1. Analyzing the audience. Because speeches are presented to a particular audience, you need to understand who will be in your prospective audience.
  1. Types of audience data needed
    1. Demographic Information can be used for several purposes
      1.                                         a.    Helps you choose a specific topic and the main ideas you will present by helping you make educated inferences about what your audience knows about your subject area and what their attitudes are toward it
      2.                                         b.    Helps you discover the ways in which your audience members are similar to and different from one another and from you
      3.                                         c.    Understanding who is in your audience will help you develop appropriate listener relevant links, which are statements of how and why the ideas you offer are of interest to your listeners
      4. Subject-related audience data: the average knowledge level your audience members have on your subject, their interest in the subject, their attitudes toward the subject, and their perceptions of your credibility.
        1. Audience knowledge – It is important that you choose a topic geared to the background knowledge you can expect audience members to have.
        2. Audience interest – You will need to choose a topic that can capture their interest or work hard as you develop your speech to overcome their disinterest.
        3. Audience attitude toward the subject.
          1. You can determine the audience’s attitudes toward your subject by surveying them, extrapolating opinion poll results for your audience or estimating the audience’s attitudes from the demographic information collected.
          2. Once you understand your audience’s attitude toward your subject, you can choose a topic that will allow you to influence rather than alienate the audience.
          3. Audience attitude toward you as a speaker.
            1. Credibility: the perception that you are knowledgeable, trustworthy, and personable.
            2. You will want to choose a topic that allows the audience to perceive you as credible and to believe that you know what you are talking about.
  1. Methods for gathering audience data.
    1. You can collect data through surveys. It is the most direct way to collect audience data. A surveyis a questionnaire designed to gather information directly from people.
      1. Two-sided items: survey items that force the respondent to choose between two answers, such as yes/no, for/against, or pro/con.
      2. Multiple-response items: survey items that give the respondent several alternative answers from which to choose.
      3. Scaled items: survey items that measure the direction and/or intensity of an audience member’s feeling or attitude toward something.
      4. Open-ended items: survey items that measure the direction and/or intensity of an audience member’s feeling or attitude toward something.
      5. You can gather data through informal observation.
      6. You can gather data by questioning the person who invited you to speak. Ask your contact person to answer the demographic questions.
      7. You can make educated guesses about audience demographics and attitudes based on such indirect information as the general makeup of the people who live in a specific community belong to a group like this, or the kinds of people who are likely to attend the event or occasion.
  1. Using audience data ethically. To demonstrate respect for your audience, you will want to avoid making inappropriate or inaccurate assumptions based on demographic or subject-related information you have collected.
    1. Two potential pitfalls to avoid are:
      1. Marginalizing: the practice of ignoring the values, needs, and interests of certain audience members, leaving them feeling excluded from the speaking situation.
      2. Stereotyping: the assumption that all members of a group have similar knowledge levels, behave, or believe alike simply because they belong to the group.
      3. You can minimize your chances of marginalizing or stereotyping by recognizing and acknowledging the demographic diversity, range of demographic characteristics represented in an audience, your audience analysis reveals.
  1. Analyzing the occasion (p. 66), essentially the setting, which includes the purpose, audience expectations, and location. The answers to several questions about the occasion should guide your topic selection and other parts of your speech planning.
  1. What are the special expectations (i.e., the exigence) for the speech? Whether the speech assignment is defined by purpose or by subject, your topic should reflect the nature of that                          assignment.
  1. What is the appropriate length for the speech? You will want to choose a topic that is narrow enough to be accomplished in the time allotted.
  1. How large will the audience be?
  1. Where will the speech be given?
    1. Consider the factors that may affect your presentation.
    2. Ask for specific information about seating capacity, shape, number of rows, nature of lighting, existence of a speaking stage or platform, distance between speaker and first row, and so on, before you speak.
  1. When will the speech be given?
  1. Where in the program does the speech occur?
  1. What equipment is necessary to give the speech?


  1. You will want to select a topic that is appropriate for your audience members and the setting.
  2. Compare topics to your audience profile.
  3. Then consider the setting.
  1. Selecting a topic.
  1. You will want to select a topic that is appropriate for your audience members and the occasion.
  1. Compare each topic to your audience profile.
  1. Writing a speech goal.
  1. Understanding general and specific goals.
    1. General Goal:  the overall intent of the speech.
      1. Most speeches intend to entertain, to inform, or to persuade, even though each type of speech may include elements of other types.
      2. The general goal is generally dictated by the occasion.
      3. Specific Goal: a single statement that identifies the exact response the speaker wants from the audience.


  1. Phrasing a specific speech goal
    1. Write a draft of your general speech goal using a complete sentence that specifies the type of response you want from the audience.
    2. Revise the statement (and the infinitive phrase) until it indicates the specific audience reaction desired.
    3. Make sure that the goal statement contains only one idea.
    4. Revise your statement until it describes the precise focus of your speech (the infinitive phrase articulation the complete response you want from your audience).

Lesson 2: Chasing Confidence.


publicspeakingEver heard or experienced stage fright? Here we can discuss how careful preparation can help you develop confidence when you speak.

  1. Understanding public speaking apprehension
  1. Public speaking apprehension is the level of fear a person experiences when anticipating or actually speaking to an audience.
    1. Almost all of us have some level of public speaking apprehension, but about 15 percent of the U.S. population experiences high levels of apprehension.
    2. Rarely does this apprehension stop people from speaking.


  1. Symptoms of public speaking apprehension
    1. The signs of public speaking apprehension vary from individual to individual, and symptoms range from mild to debilitating. Symptoms can be cognitive, physical or emotional.
    2. The level of public speaking apprehension we experience seems to vary and gradually decreases as we speak.
    3. There are three phases of reaction.
      1. Anticipation reaction: the level of anxiety you experience prior to giving the speech, including the nervousness you feel while preparing and waiting to speak.
      2. Confrontation reaction: the surge in you anxiety level that you feel as you begin your speech.
      3. Adaptation reaction: the gradual decline of your anxiety level that begins about one minute into the presentation and results in your anxiety level’s declining to its prespeaking level in about five minutes.


  1. Causes of public speaking apprehension
    1. Biologically based temperament
      1. Some public speaking apprehension may be inborn.
      2. The “communibiological” theory suggests that two aspects of inherited temperament, extroversion/introversion and neuroticism, blend together to create higher levels of                                           public speaking apprehension.
      3. Extroverted people experience lower levels of public speaking apprehension than do people who are introverted.
      4. According to the communibiological theory, public speaking apprehension is likely to be higher for those who are both more introverted and more neurotic.
      5. Previous experience
        1. Speaking apprehension may also be a result of the reinforcement we received from our previous speaking efforts.
        2. How well we performed in past situation is likely to affect how apprehensive we are about speaking in public now.
        3. The public speaking apprehension that we feel because of our past experiences, though uncomfortable, does not have to handicap our future performances.
        4. There are strategies we can use as we prepare to speak that will help us reduce our apprehension.
      6. Level of skills
        1. A third cause speech apprehension is having underdeveloped speaking skills.
        2. The “skill deficit” theory suggests that most of us become apprehensive because we don’t know how to (or choose not to) plan or prepare effectively for a public presentation.
        3. Effective speech planning is an orderly process is based on a set of skills.
        4. The goal of this course is to help you become skilled and help you to become a more confident speaker.
  1. Managing public speaking apprehension.
  1. General methods.
    1. Communication orientation motivation (COM):techniques designed to reduce anxiety by helping the speaker adopt a “communication” rather than a “performance” orientation toward the speech.
      1. Performance orientation: viewing public speaking as a  situation demanding special delivery techniques in order to impress an audience aesthetically or viewing audience members as hypercritical judges who will be unforgiving about even our minor mistakes.
      2. Communication orientation: viewing a speech as just an opportunity to talk with a number of people about a topic that is important to the speaker and to the audience.
      3. When we focus on our message and the people who are listening, and we recognize that our audience is concerned with understanding the content of the speech, not with judging us, we have adapted a communication orientation rather than performance orientation and our anxiety at speaking will be lowered.
      4. Visualization:  a method that reduces apprehension by helping speakers develop a mental picture of themselves giving a masterful speech.
        1. Visualization helps us overcome the mental and emotional causes of apprehension.
        2. By visualizing the process of speech making, not only do people seem to lower their general apprehension, but they also report fewer negative thoughts when they actually speak.
      5. Relaxation exercises: a method that reduces apprehension by using breathing techniques and progressive muscle relaxation exercises to release tension.
      6. Systematic desensitization: a method that reduces apprehension by gradually having people visualize increasingly more frightening events.
        1. This method is used to help people overcome the physical symptoms of public speaking apprehension.
        2. The ultimate goal of systematic desensitization is to have us transfer the calm feelings we attain while visualizing to the actual speaking event.
      7. Cognitive restructuring: process designed to help you systematically rebuild your thoughts about public speaking. Involves four steps:
        1. Identify negative thoughts
        2. Consider rationality of negative thoughts
        3. Develop positive coping statements
        4. Incorporate positive statements into everyday life
      8. Public speaking skills training: the systematic teaching of the skills associated with the processes involved in preparing and delivering an effective public speech with the intention of improving speaking competence as a means of reducing public speaking apprehension.
        1. If we learn the processes and behaviors associated with effective speech making, then we will be less anxious.
        2. Public speaking skills include those associated with the processes of goal analysis, audience and situation analysis, organization, delivery, and self-evaluation.


  1. Specific techniques.
    1. Allow sufficient time to prepare.
      1. You can develop a schedule based on preparing each speech over one or two weeks.
      2. You should be able to allow enough time to prepare for your speech.
      3. Use presentational aids to direct your audience’s attention to something else at carefully placed points during the speech which will diminish the sense of being constantly stared at and the anxiety that can accompany it.
      4. Practice your speech aloud.
        1. Get comfortable hearing yourself talk about your topic.
        2. By the third or fourth time you have practiced aloud, you will notice your delivery becoming easier and you will gain confidence in your ability to present your ideas to others.
        3. Many successful speakers also practice in front of trusted friends who serve as a “practice” audience.
      5. Dress up to reduce anxiety about being stared at because you feel good about how you look.
      6. Choose an appropriate time to speak. Choose to speak at the time that is optimal for you.
      7. Use positive self-talk.
        1. Give yourself a short “pre-game pep talk.”
        2. Tell yourself that you are confident and ready.
      8. Face the audience with confidence.
      9. Focus on your message. Although you may feel nervous, your audience is unlikely to “see” it.
  1. Effective speech planning: The key to confidence.
  1. Speech Plan: a strategy for achieving your goal.


  1. There are six steps to an effective speech plan.
    1. Select a speech goal that is appropriate for the audience and occasion.
      1. Speech goal: a statement of what you want your listeners to  know, believe, or do.
      2. To arrive at a speech goal, choose a topic that you know something about and that interests you or is important to you.
      3. Think about your specific audience and consider the setting.
      4. Your specific speech goal articulates exactly what you want your audience to understand, believe, or do.
      5. Understand your audience and adapt to it.
        1. Audience adaptation means presenting ideas verbally, visually, and vocally in a way that will help the audience relate to them.
        2. You will consider your specific audience’s needs and seek to meet these needs continually as you develop your ideas.
        3. It is important to consider the audience’s initial level of interest in your goal, their ability to understand the content of the speech, and their attitude toward you and your topic.
      6. Gather and evaluate information to use in the speech.
        1. When you select a topic, although you already know something about it, you will usually need more information that you can get from printed or interview sources.
        2. You will need to evaluate the information you gather and select the items that you deem to be valid and truthful.
        3. For your major class assignments, you may draw material from you own knowledge and experiences, observations, interviews, surveys, and research.
      7. Organize and develop ideas into a well-structured speech outline.
        1. You begin the process of organizing your speech by identifying the three or four major ideas you want your audience to remember.
        2. Combine the major ideas and with your speech goal into a succinct thesis statement that describes specifically what you want your audience to understand when you are done speaking.
        3. Main points must be carefully worded, and then they must be arranged in an organizational pattern that helps the audience understand and remember them.
        4. Having identified, phrased and ordered the main points, you are now ready to outline the body of the speech, including the introduction and conclusion.
        5. Most of us benefit from the discipline of organizing and developing a complete speech outline.
      8. Choose appropriate presentational aids
        1. You may decide to create a visual aid that will help clarify, emphasize, or dramatize what you say.
        2. Audiences understand and retain information better when they have received information through more than one sense.
      9. Practice the wording and delivery of the speech
        1. The goal of practice is to give you confidence that you can talk comfortably with your audience and accomplish your speech goal within the time limit.
        2. Deliver your speech extemporaneously, that is practiced to practice and in the actual delivery.
        3. Engaging in effective practice sessions enables you to become comfortable with your main points, the supporting material you use to explain them, and the transitioning from one point to another.


Lesson 1: Public Speaking At A Glance


public-speaking-signThis lesson presents the importance of public speaking in everyday life, emphasizing that public speaking empowers, and challenges us to be audience-centered and ethical. The chapter introduces important elements of effective public speaking and discusses proficient speaking as a learned activity.

  1. The Human Communication Process.
  1. The Model of Communication depicts the essential elements of communication.
  1. Elements of the Model include:
    1. Participants: the individuals who assume the roles of senders and receivers during an interaction.
      1. As senders, participants form and transmit messages using verbal symbols (words) and nonverbal behaviors.
      2. Receivers interpret the messages send by others.
      3. Messages Context:  verbal utterances, visual images, and nonverbal behaviors which meaning is attributed during communication.
        1. Meanings are the interpretations participants make of the messages they send and receive.
        2. Encoding is the process of putting our thoughts and feelings into words and nonverbal behaviors.
        3. Decoding is he process of interpreting the verbal and nonverbal messages.
        4. Feedback messages are sent by receivers and intended to let the sender know how the received made sense of the original meaning.
        5. Channels:  both the route traveled by a message and the means of transportation.
        6. Interference/Noise:  any stimulus that interferes with the process of sharing meaning. Noise can be physical or psychological.
        7. Feedback:  the reaction and responses to messages that indicate to the sender whether and how a message was heard, seen, and interpreted.
        8. Context:  Communication research reveals that there are specific contexts in which communication occurs including
          1.                                           i.    Intrapersonal Communication: self talk, communicating with yourself
          2.                                         ii.    Interpersonal Communication: the communication between two people.
          3.                                        iii.    Small Group Communication: communication that occurs among three to ten people.
          4.                                        iv.    Public Communication: communication that occurs among more than ten people where one message is presented to the participants who function as receivers and whose own messages are limited primarily to feedback, including mass communication, newspapers and public speaking.
  1.  Public speaking as a liberal art (p. 5).
  1. The role of public speaking education in democracies is that the process of preparing for speeches teaches students not what to think, but how to think – a central skill for a responsible citizen living in democracy.
  1. Public speaking skills empower people to participate in democratic processes, to communicate complex ideas and information in ways that all audience members can understand, and to achieve your career goals.
  1. Ethical principles for public speaking (p. 7).
  1. Ethics are a set of moral principles that are held by a society, group, or individual that differentiate right from wrong and good behavior from bad behavior.
  1. Five generally agreed upon ethical standards are honesty, integrity, fairness, respect and responsibility.
    1. Ethical communicators are honest. Honest speakers credit the ideas of others they use in their speech. Plagiarismis stealing and passing off ideas and words of another as one’s own or using a credited production without crediting the source. Plagiarism is widespread. 3 common methods of plagiarism are:
      1. Changing words at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of material, and copying much of the rest.
      2. Paraphrasing the unique ideas of another person and not crediting that person.
      3. Purchasing, borrowing, or using a speech prepared by another and presenting it as an original.
      4. Ethical communicators have integrity.
      5. Ethical communicators are fair.
      6. Ethical communicators demonstrate respect for others.
      7. Ethical communicators are responsible.
  1. Understanding the rhetorical situation (p. 8).
  1. The public speaking situation is the reason a speech needs to be given.
  1. The speaker is the source or originator of the speech.
  1. The audience is the specific group of people to whom your speech is directed. Audience analysis is a study made to learn about the diverse characteristics of audience members and then, based on these characteristics, to predict how audience members are apt to listen to, understand, and be motivated to act on your speech
  1. The occasion is the setting in which the speech is given.
  1. Principles of effective public speaking (p. 11). Speech effectiveness is the extent to which audience members listen to, understand, remember, and are motivated to act on what a speaker has said.
  1. Effective speakers are audience centered. Audience-centered speakers offer their ideas in ways that respond to a felt need, are appropriate to the occasion, reflect careful research, make sense, and sound interesting through the use of ethos, pathos, and logos.
    1. Ethos includes everything you say and do to convey competence and good character.
    2. Pathos consists of everything you say and do to appeal to emotions.
    3. Logos includes everything you say and do to appeal to logic and sound reasoning.
  1. An effective speech includes audience-appropriate content so that it includes listener-relevance links to make the exigence of your ideas transparent.
  1. An effective speech is well structured.
    1. Macrostructureis the overall framework you use to organize your speech content. It has four elements:
      1. The introduction is the beginning segment of the speech
      2. The speech body contains the main ideas and supporting material
      3. The conclusion ends the speech.
      4. Transitions are used to move from one main point to the next.
      5. Microstructure is the specific language and style choices you use as you frame your ideas and verbalize them to your audience.
  1. An effective speech is delivered expressively.